What Is The Best Choke For Duck Hunting? | Great Days Outdoors

What Is The Best Choke For Duck Hunting?

When it comes to duck hunting, one crucial element that often determines success is the choice of choke for your shotgun. Selecting the right choke can make a significant difference in your shooting accuracy and overall hunting experience. Whether you’re a seasoned waterfowl enthusiast or just starting in the world of duck hunting, understanding the best choke for your specific needs is essential. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of duck hunting chokes, exploring the various options available and helping you make an informed decision about which one suits you best. So, whether you’re aiming to improve your shooting skills or looking to upgrade your gear, read on to discover the best choke for duck hunting.

Understanding Chokes For Duck Hunting

Before we can begin choosing the best choke for duck hunting, we first have to have a basic working knowledge of what chokes are, what they aim to accomplish, and roughly how they do so.

Explanation Of Shotgun Chokes And Their Role In Shooting

Shotgun chokes are essential components that play a pivotal role in determining the spread and concentration of pellets when firing a shot. Found at the muzzle of the shotgun barrel, chokes effectively constrict the shot pattern as it exits the barrel, shaping its dispersion and influencing the effective range of the shot. Shotgun chokes give shooters the flexibility to adapt their firearm’s performance to different hunting or shooting scenarios, enhancing accuracy and increasing the chances of hitting the intended target.

Impact Of Choke Selection On Pattern Density And Range

Choke constriction has a significant impact on both pattern density and range in shotguns. Choke constriction refers to the narrowing of the shotgun barrel’s bore at the muzzle, which influences how the pellets spread as they exit the barrel. 

Less constriction, such as with Improved Cylinder (IC) chokes, results in wider shot patterns. In an IC choke, the pellets disperse over a broader area, which is advantageous for close-range shooting, increasing the chance of hitting fast-moving targets like ducks. However, it may lack the pattern density needed for longer shots. On the other hand, chokes with greater constriction, like Full Choke, produce tight shot patterns. Full chokes compress the pellets into a smaller area, resulting in higher pattern density. This is beneficial for longer-range shots or targeting ducks at higher altitudes, concentrating pellets on the target. Chokes with moderate constriction, such as Modified (MOD) chokes, offer a balance between pattern density and spread, making them versatile for various hunting scenarios, both at close and medium ranges. 


When selecting a choke, hunters should consider the specific hunting situation and the expected distance to the target, as the choice of choke constriction plays a pivotal role in shot pattern and range effectiveness. It’s also essential for hunters to practice and become familiar with how different choke constrictions perform with their shotgun and ammunition to make ethical and effective shots in the field.

Duck Hunting Chokes Points To Consider

Now that we have a general understanding of how chokes work, we can start to narrow down what exactly make the “best” duck hunting choke.

Distance And Range: Matching Chokes To Hunting Conditions

Matching chokes to hunting conditions in duck hunting is vital to ensure effective and ethical shots. Several factors come into play, including the specific duck species, the hunting environment, and the hunter’s skill level. When considering duck species, factors such as size, flight patterns, and behavior matter. For larger, slower-flying ducks like mallards or pintails, a choke that offers a balance between pattern density and spread, like Modified (MOD), is often suitable. In contrast, faster and more agile ducks like teal may require a more open choke, like Improved Cylinder (IC), for close, quick shots. Diving ducks, like canvasbacks, may benefit from wider chokes, such as IC or Cylinder, for swift follow-up shots.

The hunting environment also plays a crucial role in choke selection. When hunting over open water where longer shots are common, a choke with greater constriction, such as Full Choke, can provide the needed pattern density. In densely vegetated areas like marshes or swamps, where shots are closer and fast-paced, chokes with less constriction, like IC or MOD, are advantageous due to their wider patterns, increasing the chances of hitting fast-moving ducks in tight quarters. In decoyed situations, where ducks approach the spread, a MOD choke often strikes the right balance between pattern density and spread.

best choke for duck hunting

Choke constriction has a significant impact on both pattern density and range in shotguns.

Lastly, the hunter’s skill level should be considered. Novice hunters may find it easier to work with chokes like IC or MOD, which are forgiving and versatile for different conditions. Experienced hunters who have honed their marksmanship skills may prefer chokes with greater constriction, like Full Choke, as they can accurately gauge distance and lead targets effectively.


In conclusion, selecting the appropriate choke for duck hunting involves a thoughtful assessment of duck species, hunting environment, and skill level.

Ammunition Selection And Its Compatibility With Specific Chokes

Ammunition selection plays a pivotal role in duck hunting, and its compatibility with specific chokes is a critical consideration, especially since using lead shot for waterfowl hunting is illegal. Among the non-toxic shot materials commonly used for duck hunting—steel, bismuth, and tungsten—each interacts differently with choke constrictions, influencing pattern density and range.

Starting with steel shot, it’s the most prevalent non-toxic choice due to its affordability and widespread availability. It can be used with all choke constrictions, from Improved Cylinder (IC) to Full Choke. Steel shot tends to produce slightly tighter patterns than lead but remains effective at close to moderate ranges even with open chokes. When paired with tighter chokes like Full Choke, it excels at longer shots, making it suitable for pass-shooting ducks.

Bismuth shot, another non-toxic alternative, is dense like lead, making it an excellent option for waterfowl hunting. Bismuth shot is compatible with all choke constrictions and tends to produce denser patterns than steel, even with more open chokes like IC. This is beneficial for hunters targeting ducks at various distances. When coupled with tighter chokes like Full Choke, bismuth shot excels at longer shots, offering both pattern density and range.

Lastly, tungsten-based shot materials, such as tungsten-polymer and tungsten-iron, are some of the densest choices available for waterfowl hunting. These materials can be used with all choke constrictions, providing consistently dense patterns across a range of chokes. Even with IC chokes, tungsten shot offers sufficient pattern density for close to moderate ranges. When used with tighter chokes like Full Choke, tungsten shot extends the effective range, making it ideal for targeting ducks at greater distances.

In conclusion, ammunition selection is a critical aspect of duck hunting, and it must align with specific chokes to optimize performance. Steel shot, bismuth shot, and tungsten shot are viable non-toxic options, offering versatility across different choke constrictions to suit various hunting scenarios.

Pattern Testing Your Duck Hunting Chokes

Before you go duck hunting, it’s really important to do some pattern testing. This involves shooting your shotgun with different chokes and ammo at a pattern board to see how the shot spreads out. By doing this, you can figure out which combination works best for hitting ducks accurately. Pattern testing lets you see problems and fix them ahead of time, so that when you’re out there hunting, you can feel confident that your shotgun setup will help you aim better and have a successful hunt.

Begin by selecting a large, flat target board and affixing a clear grid or aiming point on it. Position the board at the distance that you intend to try and shoot most of your ducks. Fire a series of shots at the target, aiming at the center of the grid, using the choke and ammunition you’ve selected as a candidate for hunting with. 

Shoot 3 shots, then examine the pattern to see how the pellets are distributed. This will help you understand how your chosen choke performs at that distance. What you’re looking for is an evenly distributed pattern with no holes that a duck could fly through, centered upon your aiming point.

Advantages Of Muller Shotgun Chokes For Duck Hunters

If all of that sounds like too much work, or if you’re just rushed for time with duck season fast-approaching, you’re in luck. We recently sat down on the Huntin’ Land Podcast to discuss duck chokes with Jimmy Muller. Jimmy is the owner of Muller Chokes, a world-class clay shooter, and an expert wing shot who has taken thousands of waterfowl and upland birds with a shotgun. Read on to learn how Muller has done most of the hard work for you when picking the right choke for duck hunting, and to get Jimmy’s personal recommendations on duck chokes.

Gun-Specific Geometry

While the above-mentioned designations of Improved Cylinder, Modified, and Full constriction suggest some degree of standardization amongst choke models, that unfortunately isn’t the case. Bore diameter varies widely between different shotgun manufacturers, and so does the amount of constriction that different choke manufacturers call “cylinder,” “mod,” or “full.” This means that the choke that shoots awesome in your buddy’s Remington 870 can shoot completely differently in your Mossberg, Browning, or Benelli; and it’s a big part of the reason why pattern testing is so important. But Muller Chokes takes that variability out of the equation.

“What I did with my chokes is I created gun-specific pattern geometry. I took every gun on the market with every different bore diameter, with every barrel length, with every ammo on the market, and I basically kept changing the choke geometry,” Muller explained. “I started with one gun, and I changed every geometry you could imagine until I got a picture-perfect pattern out of that gun, and when I had achieved that for that gun, I drew the blueprint for that choke, and I moved on to the next gun to start all over.”

best choke for duck hunting

Choose duck hunting chokes made of high-quality materials so they stand up to the rigors of high-volume shooting.

This means that if you find a Muller choke that works in one of your guns, you can buy that same constriction and expect it to shoot exactly the same in every other gun in your safe. You can also expect a Muller choke to shoot how they say it will pattern on their site, because they’ve shot their chokes in “your” gun before.

Better Build Quality

With a background in aerospace engineering, Muller is familiar with these problems. In order to make sure that his chokes stand up to the rigors of high-volume shooting he uses a high strength Aerospace Aluminum that is infused with a Military Ceramic. This combination makes for a choke that is lightweight, hard-wearing, and extremely resistant to fouling. 

Best Choke For Duck Hunting

According to Jim, a lot of duck hunters get too caught up in fast loads, “premium” shot, and tight chokes. The secret to hitting ducks, he says, is to do the opposite of all that.

“What I tell people is if you’re going to hunt puddle ducks inside 35 yards, shoot steel. Steel #4s can be amazing, provided that they have a heavy payload and a slow velocity, and you use them with the right choke. But for years now we’ve been on this and wagon from marketing hype from the ammo manufacturers about high velocity hypersonic kills. And really the only thing that does kill is your pattern, your shoulder, and your wallet. It doesn’t kill birds. What kills birds is heavy payload, lots of pellets, and slow velocity. And when I say slow, you know, steel shot is really only loaded down to about 1300 fps. It’d be better if it was a little slower, but a lot of loads clock in as high as 1500-1700 fps. You don’t want that. As far as payload, for a 12 gauge you want 1 ½ oz to 1 ⅜ oz. If you’re going for puddle ducks inside of that 40-35 yard mark, go with that.

“As far as choke selection goes, most people are severely over-choked. Most of the time, if I’m hunting puddle ducks over decoys, I shoot a Muller Decoy constriction. It’s basically the equivalent of an improved cylinder to light-modified choke, and it’s good out to 35 yards. If I’m shooting past that, I’ll shoot our Passing constriction. That will let you stretch out to 45 yards without blowing out a pattern and let you hit those birds that are a little further out.”

Final Thoughts On Duck Hunting Chokes

In conclusion, the choice of the right choke for duck hunting is a decision that can significantly enhance your overall hunting experience. Remember that the best choke for you may vary depending on the type of ducks you’re pursuing, the distances you anticipate, and your personal shooting skills. To maximize your success, take the time to experiment with different chokes, familiarize yourself with your shotgun’s performance, and practice consistently. By doing so, you’ll be better equipped to adapt to the ever-changing challenges of the duck hunting season.

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